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1.1 Government of India Launches National Urban Sanitation Policy

In order to improve the sanitation facilities in urban areas of the country, the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India organized a workshop on November 12, 2008 to launch National Urban Sanitation Policy aiming at sanitising all cities and towns of the country. The new urban sanitation policy will focus on cleanliness of the cities and towns. Apart from it, the policy will provide affordable sanitation facilities for poor people of urban areas.

According to Urban Development Secretary, Shri M. Ramchandran, due to the increase in the urban population of the country, large chunks of households do not have any proper toilets. He informed that out of 285 million urban population of India, 26 per cent are devoid of toilet facilities. Informing more about the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Shri Ramchandran said that all the states will be asked to prepare their own model within one year. He stated that the investment and time required to implement the sanitation policy will be decided after getting the reports of the states.

The sanitation policy will try to achieve certain goals like elimination of open defecation, integrated citywide sanitation, safe disposal and proper operation and maintenance of all sanitary installations in urban areas. The states are likely to be assisted by the central to deliver proper sanitation services. The Asian Development Bank and the World Bank will be funding the sanitation project. The policy would also ensure and sustain good public health and environment outcomes for the citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.

It also aims at awareness generation, behavioral change, elimination of open defecation, integrated citywide sanitation, safe disposal and proper operation and maintenance of all sanitary installations. The main components of the policy are financial assistance for states in developing and implementing innovative strategies to accord priority to urban sanitation and city level plans and Detailed Project Reports (DPRs),

promoting Public Private Partnership (PPP), awareness generation on public health and sanitation, knowledge development on sustainability issues and capacity building for delivery of sanitation services. The policy envisages an annual rating schemes for all Class-I cities and Nirmal Shahar Puraskar- institution of an annual award. The award will recognize the achievement of cities in sanitation improvement at national level.


1.5 National Urban Water Awards - 2009

Solid Waste Management: The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India, has instituted the National Urban Water Awards (NUWA) 2009 in association with the Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and GTZ to recognize, inspire and celebrate excellence in urban water management. The Awards are aimed at honoring urban local bodies (ULBs), water boards/utilities and organizations that assist them in taking significant steps towards effective water management and improvements in service delivery. The awards aim to provide forum to showcase urban initiatives and inspiring models in water management. The award aims at providing a forum to showcase best practices in urban water management.

Award Categories:
• Technical Innovation
• Financial Reform
• Services to the Poor
• Citizen Service & Governance
• Public Private Partnerships
• Urban Sanitation including Reuse & Recycling of Wastewater

Eligibility: The awards are open to Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), Water Utilities/ Boards, and NGOs/CBOs/ private sector/bilateral and multilateral agencies in collaboration with ULBs/water Boards. The details on NUWA- 2009 and Nomination form may be downloaded from website : a 2009 website/waterboards2/home.htm.Last date of reaching nominations is 25th Feburary, 2009.
Source: Ministry of Urban Development

1.6 Study on Inclusive Urban Planning

Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India has engaged three consultancy organizations/research institutes to conduct three studies relating to implementation of three key reforms under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (BSUP & IHSDP), which are meant to build the foundation of sustainable urban development in the context of housing to the urban poor and slum development. The studies are: Study I: Inclusive Urban Planning – Reservation of land and FSI for housing and amenities to the urban poor – Innovative methods of providing land and housing to the urban poor.

Study II: Development of BSUP - Internal earmarking of 25% funds within local body budgets for basic services to the urban poor. Study III: Time Bound Action Plan for provision of 7 - Point Charter i.e. provision of basic services to urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuring convergent delivery of existing universal services for education, health and social security within the Mission Period (2005-12) according to agreed timelines. The AMDA has been entrusted the study on Inclusive Urban Planning.

Objective and Scope of the Study The objective of the Study is - to conduct a Study for Evolving Innovative Methods for Inclusive Urban Planning with respect to providing Land and Housing to the Urban Poor. The scope of the study as prescribed by the Ministry is to cover the following: (a) Reservation of Land & FSI for Housing and Amenities to the Urban Poor - Study of Master Planning Laws in India (b) Study of Master Plans in India (c) Study of Best Practices in the aforementioned fields in India and internationally based on literature survey (d) Study of Practice of Inclusive Planning- Reservation of Land for Housing and Basic Amenities to the Urban Poor in India and elsewhere (e) Study of Practice of Inclusive Planning for Informal Sector Activities (f) Role of private developers (g) Identify the bottlenecks/hurdles in the implementation of the reforms under JNNURM (BSUP & IHSDP), if any, and suggestions for removal thereof (h) Suggestions for Framework for Inclusive Urban Planning i) Guidelines for implementation of reforms for States under JNNURM (BSUP & IHSDP)

Coverage of the Study The Study is covering six States and one Union Territory from various regions including one State from North Eastern Region.

The six states and one UT selected are : (i) Haryana in North, ii) Andhra Pradesh, iii) West Bengal in East, iv) Gujarat in West, v) Madhya Pradesh in Centre, vi) Assam in North-East and vii) UT of Chandigarh in North. The Study covered one city in each selected State i.e. i) Gurgaon, Haryana, ii) Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, iii) Kolkata, West Bengal, iv) Ahmedabad, Gujarat, v) Indore, Madhya Pradesh, vi) Guwahati, Assam & vii) Union Territory of Chandigarh.

Study Outputs The study will generate a model legal frame for a uniform policy with regard to land. FSI and Housing for the Urban Poor. The recommendations of the study shall be based on the concrete models and specific initiatives of the States and cities being studied.

1.7 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat

A National Mission on Sustainable Habitat will be launched to make habitat sustainable through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste and modal shift to public transport. The Mission will promote energy efficiency as an integral component of urban planning and urban renewal through three initiatives. 1. The Energy Conservation Building Code, which address the design of new & large commercial buildings to optimize their energy demand, will be extended in its application and incentives provided for retooling existing building stock. 2. Recycling of material and Urban Waste Management will be a major component of ecologically sustainable economic development.

India already has a significantly higher rate of recycling of waste compared to developed countries. A special area of focus will be the development of technology for producing power from waste. The National Mission will include a major R&D programme, focusing on bio chemical conversion, waste water use, sewage utilization and recycling options wherever possible. 3. Better urban planning and modal shift to public transport. Making long term transport plans will facilitate the growth of medium and small cities in ways to ensure efficient and convenient public transport. In addition, the Mission will address the need to adapt to future climate change by improving the resilience of infrastructure, community based disaster management and measures for extreme weather events. Capacity building would be an important component of this Mission.

• The Mission will also have, on its research agenda, socio-economic impact of climate change including impact on health, demography, migration, patterns and livelihoods of coastal communities. The Mission comprises three components, i.e. promoting energy efficiency in the residential and commercial sector, management of municipal solid waste, and promotion of urban public transport. These represented below:

(i) Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Residential and Commercial Sector The residential sector accounts for around 13.3% of total commercial energy use in India. Electricity consumption in the residential sector is primarily for lighting, space conditioning, refrigeration, and other appliances. The commercial sector comprises various institutional establishments such as banks, hotels, restaurants, shopping complexes, offices, and public buildings.

Electricity consumption has increased at the rate of 7.4% annually between 1990-2003 in the commercial sector. Energy use in residential and commercial buildings also varies significantly across income groups, building construction typology, climate, and several other factors. There exists significant scope to reduce energy use, while also providing the requisite energy services in case of both existing & new constructions.

(ii) Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation reflects not just income levels, but also lifestyle choices. Recycling of materials in an important option for reducing environmental pressures. India has a significantly higher rate of recycling of materials in MSW than developed countries. GHG emissions from MSW in India are also much lower than in developed countries.

(iii) Promotion of Urban Public Transport An increase in the demand for transportation services for both passengers and freight is inevitable, given economic growth and increase of population. The total number of registered motor vehicles in India has increased from 21.4 million in 1990 to 72.7 million in 2003 at a CAGR of 9.9%, with the two wheeler segment comprising of motorcycles, scooters, and mopeds growing most rapidly amongst personalized modes of transportation. Road based transportation is the main source of GHG emissions in the transportation sector.

In-Situ Slum Rehabilitation : The Delhi Development Authority (DDA) has finalised an in-situ rehabilitation scheme for five slum clusters proposed to be developed through the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode in the national Capital. No land is required for in-situ construction and these are proposed to be developed through PPP for which applications have been received. Besides in-situ rehabilitation, approximately 6,000 houses for economically weaker sections will be built every year to achieve the target of 29,200 EWS houses under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in five years with total cost of Rs 900 crore. The DDA has so far rehabilitated 1,184 and 507 J J dwellers under general scheme during 2006 and 2007. During this year, approximately 1,650 J J dwellers are to be rehabilitated with an estimated expenditure of Rs 19.50 crore, the Union Minister added.

Degradable ‘Plastic bags’ in Delhi : The Government of NCT of Delhi, though has skirted the issue of an outright ban and, instead, sought promotion of ‘degradable’ plastic bags in shops and local malls. On the other hand in Delhi High Court ordered a ban on unit plastic bags though the High Court observed that plastic bags “cannot be banned completely”, the order says: “if plastic bags are unacceptable in hotels, hospitals and malls, there is no reason why they should be permitted in main markets and local shopping centres. The competent authorities would, therefore, consider stipulating a minimum thickness and forbidding use in main markets and local shopping centres.”

Admitting that plastic bags cannot be done away with, government officials said degradable bags pose less treat than regular plastic bags. These bags need a minimum thickness of 40 microns. The government would soon begin a campaign by putting up 25,000 posters advocating use of alternatives to plastic. The Delhi Pollution Control Committee will conduct next survey to catch illegal plastic manufacturing units.

The Habitat Scroll of Honour Award - 2008 : In 2008 Nanjing, Shaoxing and Zhangjiagang city of China, Bugulma city of Russia. Kigali-the capital city of Rwanda and ciudad Juarez city of Mexico has been awarded by the UN-Habitat – The Scroll of Hounour Award.
1. Nanjing
The 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honour Special Citation is awarded to the Nanjing Municipal Government for its bold, distinct, exemplary and comprehensive redevelopment, revitalization and improvement along the Qinhuai River, which runs through the Nanjing, capital of Jiangsu Province of China. In response to a growing public outcry over the health dangers, posed by industrial and human pollution of the river, the Government backed a comprehensive Improvement and Redevelopment Programme.

It delivered affordable housing for many thousands of people, introduced new flood prevention measures; the relocation of business and industries to better sites; and implemented a new waste management system with pipelines to keep all effluents directed at new treatment plants away from the river. It also provided new conservation measures for the city’s historic sites, and new landscaping with recreation facilities blending in with the natural environment. It further provided alternative decent accommodation for those who lost their land to the new developments.
2. Shaoxing
The ancient canal city of Shaoxing in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, got the Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for preserving a unique cultural and historical heritage at a time of rapid urbanisation.
Despite rapid urbanisation, the urban conservation programme has enabled this city to present itself as an elegant, peaceful and cultured place with a decent quality of life. The award recognises the restoration of its seven historic communities where buildings have been restored or renovated, the rivers cleaned up, and the streets spruced up to show off its traditional mix of white walls and black roofs.
3. Zhangjiagang The bustling port city of Zhangjiagang in Jiangsu Province, Eastern China, gets the Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for setting a new trend in integrated urban-rural development and management through an initiative by the city's authorities to improve the quality of life for farmers and other residents in its hinterland.

4. Bugulma The city of Bugulma in the Tartarstan Republic of Western Russia got the Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for transforming its contaminated water system into cheaper, safer water for its citizens. Other economic activities in the city include machinery production, the processing of agricultural products, and construction, all of which contributed to pollution of the river. Such was the toxicity, that many people became ill. In 1996, the Clean Water Programme was initiated under the guidance of the Bugulma's Mayor and with the support of the Tatarstan's president. It has since improved the standard of living and contributed towards the sustainable development of the city and its outlying districts. Residents now enjoy high quality water. The use of many underground springs allowed for a considerable reduction in chlorine treatment, thus reducing the risk of cancer.

5. Kigali The capital of Rwanda, Kigali, got the Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for many innovations in building a model, modern city symbolised by zero tolerance for plastics, improved garbage collection and a substantial reduction in crime. Starting from 1998, the authorities in Kigali began restoring the city's lost glory. They targeted garbage collection, and banned the use of plastic bags. The streets and pavements were beautified, and public transport was upgraded. Other actions areas included improvement of the sewerage system and slum upgrading. 6. Ciudad Juarez A major Mexican city Ciudad Juarez got the Habitat Scroll of Honour Award for the innovative steps taken to help thousands of flood victims rebuild their homes and lives after the Arroyo del Indio burst its banks, following heavy rains in 2006 largely believed to have been brought on by climate change.

India: Urban Poverty Report – 2009 : India: Urban Poverty Report – 2009 was released by Kumari Selja, Minister of State for Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on 3 February, 2009. This is India’s first-of-its-kind report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country. The report owes is genesis to the need, articulated at the national level, for a documentation of the main issues in urban poverty. It was felt that this documentation should be grounded in the current situation and be able to convey the extent and enormity of the challenges that confront urban India.

It is an outcome of the realization that India has not paid sufficient attention to the growing vulnerabilities of the urban poor, and is therefore not adequately prepared for the number of poor people who are likely to crowd the towns and cities of the country. The report draws attention to two important aspects that are of immediate concern to policymakers, the government, donor agencies, and development practitioners. The first aspect relates to a clear trend, especially apparent in the last two decades, of urban workers being increasingly pushed into the informal sector, even as the space for informal economic activities in the towns and cities is gradually shrinking.

Within the informal sector, the profile of the work in urban areas has also moved from casual employment to self employment. The urban poor, therefore, is increasingly a street vendor, a rickshaw puller, a rag picker, a cleaner, a washer, a watchman, a load carrier, a domestic maid/ worker, a plumber, an electrician, or a worker in a small unorganized industry, hotel, restaurant, or on a construction site. Termed as ‘blue collar workers’, their workspaces are often ‘public spaces’ like footpaths, streets, vacant plots, and parks.

1.8 The Growth and Development Plans of National Capital Region of Delhi: An Interview with the Member Secretary, NCRPB

1. National Capital Region consisting of NCT of Delhi and part of Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh with five countermagnet areas was constituted under statutory parliamentary enactment NCRPB Act in 1985. a) Do you agree with the concept of development of a city in its regional context and relevance in the present scenario? Yes, I agree with the concept of development of a city in its regional context. Indian cities are experiencing phenomenal growth in employment generating economic activities leading to massive rural to urban migration; this is leading to overcrowding and congestion in the cities which in turn is causing severe strain on basic urban services of the cities.

If this trend is not arrested, cities will become unlivable and unsustainable. Development of a city in its regional context offers a solution of the problem. If an entire region is developed, advantage of the increased economic opportunities can be taken by people even without crowding the city. Strategy to divert migrant population to Counter Magnet Areas can be adopted and the region as a whole can be developed to disperse and de-concentrate the economic activities. This strategy has paid rich dividends in development of India’s National Capital Region.

b) What are the complexities and challenges being faced in regional development in a cohesive way? Regional development is a comcomplex process; 73rd Amendment of the Indian constitution provides for District Plans and 74th Amendment prescribes Municipal Plan; Mechanism to integrate both these plans in a cohesive way seems to be lacking. There is a vast rural-urban divide in India which can be managed only through planning in a regional context. The process gets further complicated if the region is governed by more than one provincial government and a number of agencies have to work together to develop the region as is the case in NCR. Scale and dimension of development of basic infrastructure in the whole region poses a great challenge. Having said that, it is achievable objective and it has very desirable outcomes. Therefore in spite of complexities and challenges it is worth doing.

c) How different are the challenges in developing NCR than any other Regions existing elsewhere in the World? Challenges to development of NCR are enormous. Size of the NCR which is 33000 square kilometers makes it the biggest Capital Region in the world. The region spreads to 4 provinces namely NCT Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan which are governed by elected governments. The priorities of the provinces depend on party in power and pose complex coordination issues. In addition, a number of Central Ministries are involved in development of NCR region. It further complicates coordination issues. The NCR is a dynamic urbanrural region with more than 100 urban settlements and 7750 rural settlements. It is endowed with ecologically sensitive natural features like ridge, wetland, and sanctuaries etc which call for environmentally sustainable development. In addition, huge funds are needed for over all development of all sectors in the region. Thus NCR development is unique and complex in many ways.

2. NCR Planning Board has been created and has been given the mandate of systematic development of NCR. The Board has notified the Regional Plan-2021 for NCR in its process of balanced & planned development of the Region. a) How different is the present Plan in comparison to earlier Regional Plan-2001 for NCR? Regional Plan-2001 was notified in 1989 and RP-2021 has been notified in 2005. Both the Plans were prepared under Section 7(a) of the NCR Planning Board Act, 1985. Both are perspective Regional Plans and seek to evolve harmonized policies for the control of land uses and development of infrastructure in the NCR. The Regional Plan-2001 envisaged restricting the growth of Delhi by dispersing activities in NCR, allowing only a moderate growth of Delhi Metropolitan Area towns which surround Delhi and inducing the development of the rest of the Region by accelerating the growth of Priority Towns in the Sub-regions of Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. However, RP-2021 was prepared incorporating lessons learned during implementation of RP-2001.

The Board used the latest techniques of remote sensing and geographical information system in the preparation of the Plan. The Plan was prepared after in-depth study by the expert Study Groups constituted on various aspects and discussions held in Seminar, Working Groups and meetings of the Planning Committee & the Board. Regional Plan-2021 proposed ‘to harness the spread of the developmental impulse and agglomeration economies generated by Delhi for harmonized, balanced and environmentally sustainable spatio-economic development of the NCR with effective cooperation of the participating States’. To enable the planned and regulated development along the highways, a new policy zone coined as ‘Highway Corridor Zone’ (HCZ) is introduced in the new Plan. The concern and care has also been taken to have flexibility in the Regional Plan -2021 with proper forwardbackward linkages.

b) What are the salient features and new features in the new plan i.e., Regional Plan- 202l for NCR? The Regional Plan-2021 for NCR provides a model for sustainable development of urban and rural settlements in the NCR. The vision of the Plan is to develop the entire NCR as a region of global excellence. The Plan aims to promote economic growth and balanced development of the Region and seeks to attain these through (a) providing suitable economic base for future growth by identification and development of regional settlements capable of absorbing the economic development impulse of Delhi; (b) providing efficient and economic rail and road based transportation networks (including mass transport systems) well integrated with the land use patterns to support balanced regional development in such identified settlements;

(c) minimizing the adverse environmental impact that may occur in the process of development of the NCR; (d) developing selected urban settlements with urban infrastructure facilities such as transport, power, communication, drinking water, sewerage and drainage comparable with Delhi; (e) providing a rational land use pattern; and (f) promoting sustainable development in the region for improving the quality of life. One of the major new features in the new Plan is the approach in planning and development of the Region; the plan provides for flexibility with a provision of forward- backward linkages & vice-versa. Simultaneously, efforts have also been made to identify large projects and estimates have been made for the fund requirement too. In addition to this, detail elaborations are done on the phasing of the implementation of major policies for various aspects/sectors dovetailing them with the five-year national plans.

Attempts have also been made to identifying the agency (ies)/organizations (s)/department (s) responsible for implementing these policies at centre and state levels. c) How does Board propose to curb down the influx of migrants in NCR? In order to restrict migration in NCR, the new plan targeted to improve inter & intra connectivity and develop facilities if not better at least to the par of NCT-Delhi. This includes not only the basic civic infrastructure but also aspects such as health, education, social security and safety. In addition, it is also proposed to have unrestricted and seamless movement of traffic within NCR as well as development of new nodes along the intersection of key transport corridors/ networks.

The Plan, also proposes to assess and analyze migration pattern in depth and accordingly review the countermagnet areas and its policy to act as interceptors to the migrants bound towards the core of the NCR. In this regard, Board has recently conducted a Study on ‘countermagnet areas to Delhi and NCR’ and recommendations of the study report are under examination and consideration for appropriate induction and further actions. 3. The first Regional Plan-200l for NCR was notified on 23rd January 1989. Although it is difficult to visualize & assess the success or otherwise of the regional plan in such a short time frame of 20 years since its notification, still will you kindly respond to the following questions.

(a) What are the major successes and achievements in implementing the policies and proposals of Regional Plan-200l for NCR? A perspective Plan provides a guide to future development of a region. Therefore, to assess the success of RP-2001, one has to consider what would have happened had the plan not been there. The Plan has provided vision to the development of this region which is visible in reduction in decadal growth rate of population during the Plan period. To mention a few more, a number of National Highways and also outer and inner grid roads have been upgraded and Eastern and Western Peripheral Expressways are under construction. Mass Commuter System in the form of Delhi Metro Rail has been constructed & is in operation. The region has developed outside NCTD during the period and has accommodated a large population which otherwise would have crowded Delhi to its limits. In addition, NCRPB has financed a number of infrastructure projects in the region to promote its Plan objectives.

(b) What are the lessons learned from the old Plan? There are a number of lessons. Regional Plan as such needs integration of rural and urban development efforts in the region, which is a complex process. The problem gets further complicated if more than one states govern parts of the region as is the case in the NCR. The Board’s task gets constrained in many ways because the land and urban development issues are entirely in the State domain.

Hence, success of the Plan lies in ruling State Government’s willingness to take up development activities on priorities for their concerned part in the Region. This is one of the major hindrances in development of this Region. It is also being realized that planning is a continuous and dynamic process which transforms and gets affected by policy decisions at various levels. Hence, the Plan should be flexible and is required to be reviewed periodically. In present scenarios, a well defined mechanism to implement and operationalise the plan needs to be developed. In addition, phasing and the accountability at each stage are also crucial and all stakeholders have to play their positive roles in a coordinated manner.

4. It is considered that for development of any area/region, basic infrastructure plays a crucial role. We also presume that NCR Planning Board has given due consideration while preparing and notifying Regional Plans for NCR.

(a) What is the emphasis given in the new plan and initiative in developing the basic civic infrastructure in the Region? Regional Plan 2021 lays emphasis on transport, drinking water supply, sanitation, solid waste management and all other physical & social infrastructure in the Region and specific policies are laid down for development of these facilities to attain overall development within NCR. Thrust areas of the Plan include sustainable Land Uses at the Regional level, Development of Metro and Regional Centres as powerful growth nodes to attract major activities, Providing regional transport linkages and Mass Commuter System, Construction of peripheral expressways and orbital rail corridor around Delhi, and Development of core urban infrastructure (transport, power, water supply, sewerage, drainage etc.) in NCR towns.

It also provides to facilitate development of the region’s economy through Model Industrial Estates, Special Economic Zones etc. outside NCT-Delhi and to develop critical Project Plans which are integral elements of the development vision. Regional Plan-2021 for NCR proposes a mechanism of Special Component Plan for NCR to be established as a part of fiveyear plans prepared by the Planning Commission for national level. The requisite funds should be allocated by the Planning Commission as a Sub-component of the Plan in respect of the concerned Central Ministries as well as participating States of the NCR.

Other resources for implementation are grants from the Ministry of Urban Development, Market borrowings, investment from the private sectors, multilateral funding agencies like WB and ADB etc. In addition to this, Board also assists the constituent States by providing financial assistance in the form of soft loan up to 75% of the total estimated cost specifically to projects related to infrastructure development in the town/sub-region/rural belts.

(b) How does Board propose to improve the power scenario in the Region? Regional Plan-2021 projected total install capacity required for the Region as 34,444 MW by the year 2020-2021. CEA projections in 2007 estimated required installed capacity of nearly 36000 MW by the year 2021. Current estimates put this figure to nearly 49000 MW. Over the period, the Region experienced a phenomenal growth and rapid industrialization. However, the present status of power supply in NCR did not keep pace with the demand. Detailed policies and proposals along with phasing dovetailed with national level five-year plans are stipulated in the Plan.

The States have to tie up the generation of power for their respective State either through construction of new power generating station in public or private sector or may have Power Purchase Agreement with Private Companies. Upgradation of Transmission & Distribution has to be accelerated with adequate budgetary support or under the APDRP scheme of Ministry of Power. The Plan also provides policies for promotion of non-conventional energy resources, modern techniques for load management and reduction of AT&C losses. The Board is also preparing a Functional Plan on Power for the NCR.

(c) What about interventions made in improving social infrastructure such as health, education, law & order within the Region?

Regional Plan-2021 for NCR also addresses to social infrastructure requirements of the Region. Policies along with norms and standards are laid down in the Plan for development of housing, education, health, law & order, etc. The Plan promotes culture-based health facilities system like Ayurvedic, Unani, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Yoga and Meditation to be strengthened and augmented to provide low cost and locally accessible health care. The Plan recognizes the role of distance education & learning as one of the modes of spreading education. Regarding law & order, the Plan proposes to set up a central coordinating agency/ institutional mechanism, with similar police/ administrative system including uniform laws wherever required to control and monitor criminal activities on regular basis in the region.

5. NCR encompasses a huge area which also requires a better linkages and connectivity inter & intra region.

(a) How does NCR Planning Board aim at providing efficient, effective, robust and affordable Public transport system? The NCR Planning Board has instituted a study with a view to formulate an ‘Integrated Multi Model Transport System’ in the NCR. This study will identify transportation projects and would recommend institutional arrangements for ensuring an efficient transport system, which will be under the reach of common people. Besides the NCR Planning Board is financing transport related projects from various constituent States and intends to further speed up the creation of transport infrastructure in the Region.

(b) What recent efforts have been made by the Board in implementing the policies and proposals for NCR of the Regional Plan- 2021? The Board has negotiated a common agreement for seamless movement of vehicles in the NCR Region. An agreement in respect of contract carriages has already been signed by the States and steps are being taken to implement it. In addition, another agreement in respect of stage and good carriage is being negotiated by the NCRPB with the constituent States and is likely to be finalized soon. The Board is also facilitating the study on transport to make it more meaningful in the context of NCR.

(c) Will you kindly describe Common Transport Reciprocal Agreement regarding seamless and unrestricted movement of interstate and intra-city traffic movement. What are the major highlights of this agreement and its benefits for public at large? The Common Transport Reciprocal Agreement on contract carriages is meant for ensuring seamless and unrestricted movement of auto rickshaws, taxis and contract buses in the NCR.

These carriages will have a common colour code which has already been finalised and agreed by the constituent States. The agreement has been published in the official gazette of the States. The vehicles under this agreement will be in a position to move within the NCR without any obstruction or restriction on the borders of the constituent States and the public will find a seamless transport system within the entire NCR Region.

6. Both NCR Planning Board and Regional Plan-2021 for NCR aspire for harmonized and sustainable development of the Region.

(a) What measures have been taken to ensure and improve the environment quality and increasing the green areas in the Region? The new Plan proposes to follow the carrying capacity of the Region based on Minimum National Standards. There is a need to reduce unnecessary conversion of good agriculture land to urban uses. Similarly, to protect various environmentally sensitive areas, natural features and natural resources land suitability analysis is embedded within the planning process.

The Plan has identified and laid emphasis on the protection and conservation of various areas/zones falling in the categories namely, forests; monuments; heritage/ cultural sites; scenic areas; national parks; sanctuaries; areas with endangered species- flora and fauna; biosphere reserves; wetlands; water bodies; springs/water recharge areas and other environmental resource areas. Special stress is given on protection, prohibition of specific activities and revival of Ridge areas falling within the Region through a detailed conservation plan as the area is deteriorating gradually.

The new Plan also proposes that all wastelands identified in the existing Land Use 1999 and proposed Land Use Plan 2021, ROW of irrigation canals, drains, roads, railway lines and village common lands should be brought under forest cover. The total forest cover proposed to be 10% of the total area of the region. Similarly, at least, 2-5% area should be earmarked under water bodies both natural as well as constructive in the distribution of land uses. Separate ‘natural conservation zone’ with no construction exceeding 0.5% of the area with the permission of the competent authority are also proposed.

The Plan prescribes that Pollution Control Boards of respective States to monitor parameters such as air, water & land pollution on a in greater detail the areas under different categories that need to be conserved. In addition, the policies and proposals of the Regional Plan are to be implemented by the Constituent State Governments and concerned Central Ministries. Hence, the constituent States prepare Sub-Regional Plans for their respective sub-regions within the policy framework of the Regional Plan. At the local level, the State Governments prepare Master/Development Plans for the towns and other local area/zonal plans within the framework of the Regional Plan and Sub-Regional Plans.

The Board also prepares Functional Plans relating to sector such as transportation, power and water and have been playing an important and critical role in providing regional framework to sectoral development. In absence of lower hierarchy plans, enforcement of controls on the ground will become impossible.

7. Regional Plan-2021 for NCR proposes to develop infrastructure facilities at par with the facilities available in NCT-Delhi. To develop such a huge area and to accommodate large population requires huge funds and investment.

(a) Will you kindly indicate the level of investment and funding required to develop such infrastructure in Region and the possibility for mobilizing resources. Regional Plan-2021 estimated tentative investment required of nearly Rs. 3,72,342 crores for developing important infrastructure like power, transport, water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and drainage. If demands grow faster than estimated, this amount will go up. A solution, to a considerable extent, lies in augmentation of resources through budgetary support, multi-lateral agencies like WB and ADB etc.

as well as through public private partnership. Creation of special component for NCR by dovetailing it with the Five Year Plan approved by the Planning Commission may be helpful in higher allocation for development of the Region. A pro-active approach is needed to identify and implement the projects under public private partnership.

(b) Illustrate efforts made by the Board in financing for developing and upgrading the infrastructure in the Region and its Counter -magnet areas. NCRPB has sanctioned 214 projects in drinking water, transport, power, sewerage, land development etc. However, for development of infrastructure in the Region and its CMAs, NCRPB has plans to finance urban development infrastructure projects worth Rs. 15,000 crores in the current Five Year Plan.

This fund requirement will be met by Government grant, the existing resources of the NCR Planning Board, by raising loans from multilateral funding agencies like Asian Development Bank and World Bank and also from the market by floating bonds. A total of nearly Rs. 11,000 crores of funds raising will be needed to achieve this target of Rs. 15,000 crores project financing.

(c) Any scope and past success of Public- Private Partnership for the development of the Region. The responsibility to fund the required infrastructure projects in the region lies on the constituent State Governments, Central Ministries, and on the Planning Board to the extent possible. There being limitations to government funding, private funding is the only viable alternative. Particularly in sector like power and transport, a lot can be achieved through Public Private Partnership. Fund raising through tax-free municipal bonds, FDI and using land as resource may have to be explored to finance the infrastructure projects of the region.

8. What are the aspects which need to be implemented for the balanced, planned and harmonious development of the Region on priority? A balanced, planned and harmonious development of NCR region is a mammoth task and needs multi pronged approach. On one hand migration to Delhi has to be made less attractive by developing the NCR region outside NCTD and by developing CMAs by creating economic opportunities and providing civic amenities comparable to NCTD. The concerned states and Central Ministries may have to work under a coordinated Action Plan an outline of which has been given in RP 2021.

It is possible only if a suitable coordination bodies (like an Integrated Multi-modal Transport Authority for transport) under the Federal structure is established between the states to monitor development work in NCR on day to day basis. In addition, the funds required for the work are provided on priority to step up pace of development of core infrastructure in the region. A requirement of Rs. 3,72,342 crore is projected in Regional Plan-2021 for development of infrastructure in NCR.

Resources have to be raised by the concerned states under PPP, through multilateral agencies like WB and ADB and various government schemes in addition to establishing a Special Component Plan mechanism for NCR. In addition, Master Plan for land uses and sectoral plans for water, drainage, sewerage, transport and solid waste management etc have to be prepared on an urgent basis to avoid any unplanned development of the region.

1.7 National Seminar on “Developing Harmonious & Sustainable Cities in India for a Better Urban Future”

The Association of Municipalities and Development Authorities (AMDA) is organizing a two-day National Seminar on “Developing Harmonious & Sustainable Cities in India for a Better Urban Future” in Partnership with United Nations Human Settlements Programme on 21-21 March, 2009 at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi. The objectives of the Seminar are:
• To highlight the importance of sustainable urban development so as to make our cities more harmonious.
• Present the best and leading urban practices, share experiences and take forward various urban initiatives by the central, state and local governments.
• Cover important topics like urban reforms, pro-poor infrastructure investments, inclusive urban planning, integrated management of urban infrastructure including water and waste water, slum rehabilitation and affordable housing, safety and security of our cities and adaptation to climate change. The Sessions of the Seminar are:

Technical Session-I: Promoting Social Equity and Inclusiveness in Indian Cities.
Technical Session-II:
Making Indian Cities Economically Productive and More Equitable. Technical Session-III: Harmonising the Built and Natural Environment of Indian Cities.
Technical Session-IV: Preserving the Historical Roots and Soul of the Indian Cities.
Technical Session-V:
Developing Indian Cities for all Generations.

For Registration and more details
about the Seminar, please write to Dr. Kulwant Singh,
Director-cum-Member Secretary,
AMDA, New Delhi
Telephone : +91-11-26497973/26494486/ 26496487/26496837(D)
E -mail :

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